Cushman (Y-DNA)

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Status summary

Completed as of September 29, 2020:

  • Recruiting direct male-line Cushman descendants for further SNP testing - anyone interested in submitting their DNA for testing should contact Raymond T. Wing (email: wing.genealogist AT gmail DOT com)


Still to do as of August 29, 2020

  • NGS/WGS test multiple Y-DNA descendants of Thomas Cushman to firmly place family clade as well as test descendants to discover any subclades unique to descendants lines


Biography

English Ancestry

A wikipedia article on Thomas Cushman stated the family was "Flemish in origin, who with other countrymen came to several regions of England at the invitation of King Edward II around the year 1336. (From Thomas Fuller, Church History of England, 1837.)"

An April 1914 NEHG Register article[1] documents the English ancestry of Thomas Cushman. The article starts with the will of John Crocheman, who apparently never married as he failed to list a wife or children in his will. The will does mention "Johane Crocheman my sister" and "my brother Thomasc Crocheman" was primary heir and residual beneficiary.

While not in the Register article, a website[2] states the Cranbrook, Kent parish register has the burial of Thomasc Crouchman 14 Jun 1567. This website states his wife was possibly named Joan[3] and they may have had a daughter Anne as well as a son Thomas.

Going back to the Register article, the next generation was Thomasb Cowchman/Couchman who originally lived in Hawkhurst, Kent, but was living in Rolveden, Kent in 1578, aged 40 years. This Thomas married Rolvenden, 18 Jul 1568, to Eleanor/Ellen Hubbarde. Thomas' will, dated "Rolvinden" 10 Feb 1585/6 and proved 12 May 1586, listed his children (all under 21): Richard, Robert, and (daughter) Sylvester. The Archdeacons transcripts of the Rolveden parish records records several children for Thomas (but not eldest son Richard). Most of the children (with the exception of Sylvester and Robert) died young. Thomas' widow Ellen married Emanuell Everden at Rolveden on 17 Oct 1587. He was buried there 3 Dec 1589. The widow Ellen married for a third time at Canterbury (License 6 Nov 1593) to Thomas Tilden. A wikipedia article on Robert Cushman states his mother was buried at Ashford, Kent in 1601.[4]

Roberta Couchman was baptized at Rolveden 9 Feb 1577/8. He became the first of the family to have his surname spelled Cushman. Robert married twice, first to Sara Reder at St Alphege parish church, Canterbury, 11 Jul 1606. They moved to Holland shortly after their son Thomas was baptized (Feb 1607/8) and Sara died in Leiden, Holland, where she was buried on 11 Oct 1616. Robert then married at Leiden 5 Jun 1617 to Mary (Clarke), widow of Thomas Shingleton of Sandwich, Kent. It appears Robert and his second wife never had any children, and it is likely she died before 1621.[5] Shortly after this second marriage, Robert was picked along with John Carver to be the agents on behalf of the Separatists to negotiate a way to emigrate to the Colony of Virginia. Robert almost certainly intended to emigrate with the other colonists in 1620, but due to the leaky Speedwell which had to be abandoned, Robert was left behind. He did come over on the next ship, the Fortune in 1621, but had to immediately return back to England (to continue negotiations with the Merchant Adventurers). Robert always intended on coming back to the new colony, but died in England and was buried at St. George, Benenden, Kent on 6 May 1625.

First Generation

(Elder) Thomas Cushman was baptized at St. Andrew, Canterbury, Kent on 8 Feb 1607/8, son of (Deacon) Robert Cushman and Sara Reder. The family soon moved to Holland to join the English Separatist movement there. Thomas and his father emigrated to New Plimouth in 1621 aboard the Fortune. Robert had to return back to England (to continue his business dealings with the Merchant Adventurers) and he left his son Thomas under the care of Gov. Bradford. Thomas married Mary Allerton (daughter of Pilgrim Isaac Allerton). The family continued to live in Plymouth, where Thomas was appointed the Ruling Elder of the Congregation (replacing the recently deceased William Brewster) in Apr 1649. Thomas continued to serve as the Elder until his own death, 10-11 Dec 1691 and he was buried on Burial Hill in town. His wife survived until 28 Nov 1699, being the last surviving Mayflower passenger.

Thomas and Mary had eight children: Thomas, Sarah, Mary, Isaac, Elkanah, Fear, Eleazer and Lydia.

Second Generation

Thomas (II) was born about Sep 1637 and died at Plympton 23 Aug 1726. He married twice, first to Ruth Howland (daughter of Pilgrim John Howland) Plymouth 17 Nov 1664. His second marriage was Rehoboth 16 Oct 1675 to Abigail TITUS Fuller. Thomas had three children by his first wife Robert [1664], Desire [c1668] and Thomas (II) [b. 1670]) and four sons by his second (Job, Bartholomew, Samuel & Benjamin)

Isaac was born 8 Feb 1648/9 and died at Plympton 21 Oct 1732. He married Rebekah Harlow (a great-granddaughter of Pilgrim Richard Warren) about 1675. They had seven children: Isaac (1676), Rebekah (1678), Mary (1682), Sarah (1684), Ichabod (1686), Fear (dau 1689) and Mercy (abt 1690).

(Deacon) Elkanah was born Plymouth 1 Jun 1651 and died at Plympton 4 Sep 1727. He married twice, first Plymouth 10 Feb 1677 to Elizabeth Cole, who died 4 Jan 1681/2. He married second, Plymouth 2 Mar 1682 to Martha Cooke (granddaughter of Pilgrims Francis Cooke & Stephen Hopkins). Elkanah had three sons by his first wife (Elkanah [1678], James [1679] & Jabez [1681-1682]) and five children by his second (Allerton [1683], Elizabeth [1685/6], Josiah [1687/8], Martha [1691] & Mehitable [1693]).[6]

Eleazer was born 20 Feb 1656/7 and died after Nov 1733. He Plymouth 12 Jan 1687/8 married Elizabeth Coombs and had eight children; three daughters and five sons (John, James, Moses, Eleazer & William).

Third Generation

Robert Cushman was born Plymouth 4 Oct 1664 and died Kingston 7 Sep 1757. He married twice, first abt 1697 Persis Lewis and second Marshfield 2 Feb 1744 Prudence Sherman (no children). By his first wife Robert had seven children (Plymouth): Robert (1698 m Mercy Washburn), Ruth (1700), Abigail (1701), Hannah (1704), Thomas (1705/6 m Mehitable Faunce), Joshua (1707 m Mary Soule & Deborah Ford) and Jonathan (1712 m Susanna Benson).

Thomas Cushman (II) was born Plymouth abt 1670 and died Lebanon, CT 9 Jan 1726/7, aged 57 years. He married Sarah Strong and they had six children (Lebanon CT): William (likely unm.), Thomas (c1705 m Mary ____ & Susannah Johnson), Zibiah (c1708), Eleazer (c1720 m Abigail Parsons), Ruth and Lydia.

Job Cushman was born abt 1680 and died bef 21 May 1740. He married Lydia Arnold[7] and they had three children: Mariah (1707), Job (1710-1729) and Lydia (1718). Thus there are no Y-DNA descendants of Job.

Bartholomew Cushman was baptized Plymouth 13 Mar 1684 and died Plympton 21 Dec 1721. He never married.

Samuel Cushman was born or baptized Plymouth 16 Jul 1687 and died Attleboro 19 Feb 1766. He married Plympton 8 Dec 1709 Fear Corser and they had seven children (Plympton): Desire (1710), Marcy (1712), Samuel (1715-1727), Joseph (1717-1727), Jacob (c1720 m Elizabeth Reade), Jemima (1724) and Bartholomew (1726-1736).

Benjamin Cushman was baptized Plymouth 1 Mar 1691 and died died Plympton 17 Oct 1770. He married twice, first 8 Jan 1712 Sarah Eaton (a descendant of Francis Eaton & Digory Priest), and second, 14 Mar 1738/9 Sarah ?PHIPENY Bell. By his first wife, Benjamin had ten children: Jabez (1713 m Sarah Paddleford), Caleb (1715 m Sarah Barrows), Solomon (1717 m Abigail HOLMES Bourne), Jerusha (1719-1727), Benjamin (1722 m Zeruiah Sampson), Sarah (1725), Abigail (1727), Thomas (1730 m Anna Chipman), Jerusha (1732) and Huldah (1735)


Isaac Cushman (II) was born Plymouth (now Plympton) 15 Nov 1676 and died Plympton 18 Sep 1727. He married twice, first Plymouth 18 Jan 1700 Sarah Gibbs (great-granddaughter of Richard Warren) and second Harwich 10 Oct 1717 Mercy BRADFORD Freeman (descendant of William Bradford & Richard Warren). By his first wife, Isaac had six children: Phebe (1703), Alice (1705), Rebekah (1707), Sarah (1709), Nathaniel (1712) and infant (1715). By his second wife, Isaac had four more children: Fear (1718), Priscilla (1719), Isaac (1721-1721) and Abigail (1722).

Ichabod Cushman was born Plymouth (now Plympton) 30 Oct 1686 and died Middleborough 26 Oct 1832. He married twice, first Esther Barnes (d. w/o surviving children) and second Plympton 27 Nov 1712 Patience Holmes. By his second wife Ichabod had nine children: Joanna (1713), William (1715 m Susanna Sampson & Priscilla TINKHAM Cobb), Sarah (1717), Experience (dau 1719), Patience (1721), Mary (1723), Ichabod (1725 m Patience MackFern & Hope White), Rebekah (1727) and Isaac (1730 m Sarah Miller).


Elkanah Cushman (II) was born Plymouth 15 Sep 1678 and died there 9 Jan 1714/5. He married Plymouth 23 Feb 1702/3 Hester/Esther Barnes and they had four children (Plymouth): Elizabeth (1703), Elkanah (1706 m Lydia Bradford), James (1709 m _____) and Hannah (1713).

James Cushman

Allerton Cushman was born Plymouth 21 Nov 1683 and died there 9 Jan 1730/1. He married twice, first Plymouth 11 Jan 1710/1 Mary Buck and second Plympton 15 Sep 1726 Elizabeth Sampson. By his first wife he had four children: James (1709 m Hannah Cobb), Allerton (1712 m Althea Soule), Mary (1718) and Ephraim (1720-1725). By his second wife he had two children: Alice (1727-1727) and Joseph (1729-1731).

(Lt.) Josiah Cushman was born Plymouth 21 Mar 1687/8 and died Plympton 13 Apr 1750. He married abt 1709 Susanna Shurtleff and they had nine children (Plympton): Susanna (1710-1710), Martha (1712), Susanna (1715), Anna (1717), Josiah (1719 m Sarah Standish & Deborah Ring), Elkanah (1721 m Hannah Standish & Patience PADDOCK Perkins), William (1723 m Sarah Holloway, Ruth Robinson & Ann Rindge), Elizabeth (1728) and Isaiah (1730 m Sarah Ring).


John Cushman was born Plymouth 13 Aug 1690 and died prob. Plympton aft May 1760. He married Joanna Pratt and they had four[8] children: John (p1715 m Deborah Raymond), Eleazer (1720 m Eunice Stoddard), Charles (1722 m Mary Harvey) and James (1727 m Levina Downer)

James Cushman was born Plymouth 1690 and died Dartmouth (now Fairhaven) abt 1777. He married Sarah Hatch and had at least eleven children: Lydia (1723), James (1725 m Hannah Negus), Ebenezer (1727 m Zeruiah Shearman), Thomas (1728 m Ruth Carver but only had three daughters), Mary (1730), Sarah (1732), Seth (1734 m Abiah Allen), Elisha (1737 m Reliance Eastland), Elizabeth (1739), Temperance (1742), Patience (1744) and poss. Cornish.

Moses Cushman was born Plymouth 1683 and died Halifax 12 Aug 1766. He married Plympton 22 Aug 1721 Mary Jackson and they had thirteen children: Abner (1722 m Mary Tilson), Elijah (1724/5-1725/6), Mary (1725), Sarah (1727), poss. Susanna (c1729), Isaac (1730 unk if marr.), Hannah (1732), Joshua (1733/4 unk if marr), Bette (1735), Deborah (1737), Huldah (1739), Moses (1740 unm) and Eleazer (1744 unm).

Eleazer Cushman

William Cushman was born Plymouth 1697 and died Willington, CT 27 Dec 1777 aged 80. He married 1730 Abigail Lee and they had eleven children: Sarah (1731), Solomon (1733 m Esther Cross), Lydia (1735), William (1739 m Abigail Parker), Job (1741-1760 unm), Abigail (1744), Mary (1746), Allerton/Olderton (1748 m Abigail Clark), Joshua (1751 m Bathsheba Allyn), Benjamin (1753 m Lucy Lee & Elizabeth Cummings) and Joseph (1759 m Tabitha Johnson).


References

  1. New England Historical and Genealogical Register, vol. 68 pp. 181-85 "Genealogical Research in England: Cushman" by Elizabeth French
  2. Cushmansite.com
  3. but it may simply be this is the "Johane Crocheman" mentioned in the will of John Crocheman above.
  4. but it fails to list a source for this burial
  5. As she did not emigrate to New Plimouth with Robert and his son Thomas
  6. Some sources give another son, Jacob c1695, but likely in error.
  7. Some Sources claim her maiden name was Brewster.
  8. Some sources have a second son Eleazer, born 1726. Also some confusion regarding contemporary Eleazer Cushmans.

DNA results

Previous Y-DNA testing

The Cushman, Couchman surname DNA Project currently lists eight individuals as "Probable Descendants of Robert Cushman, of Kent"[1] All of the testers have only done Y-STR 37 testing to date. FTDNA predicts the family falls under R1b-M269. Plugging in the modal value for the family into the Nevgen Haplogroup Predictor[2] gives a prediction of: R1b DF27>ZZ12>ZZ41 with a 73.3% probability.[3]

DNA lineage

One patrilineal descendant of Robert Cushman has Y-DNA tested and reported this fact to wikitree His line is as follows:

 Robert1 Cushman (1577/8-1625) m Susan Reder
   Thomas2 Cushman (1607/8-1691) m Mary Allerton
     Elkanah3 Cushman (1651-1727) m Martha Cooke
       Allerton4 Cushman (1683-1731) m Mary Buck
         Allerton5 Cushman (II) (1712-1777) m Alethea Soule
           Allerton6 Cushman (III) (1740-1801) m Harmony Allen
             Minerva7 Cushman (1762-1842) m Priscilla Collins
               David Allerton8 Cushman (1795-1886) m Julia Maria Curtis
                 William Allerton9 Cushman (1829-1893) m Mary Elizabeth Harris
                   James Harris10 Cushman (1868-1956) m Florence Barton Pierce
                     William Allerton11 Cushman (1910-????) m Ruth L. Barrows
                       tester

Further needed testing

We need additional direct male-line descendants of Thomas Cushman to WGS/NGS test to both confirm the lineage as well as to refine the haplogroup further and delineate descendant clades.


  1. but the STR results appear to have far too wide of a spread (ie some have a GD of 10-12 at 37 markers) for them all to be descendants of Robert Cushman. It is much more likely only five or six of these eight individuals are actual Y-DNA descendants of Robert Cushman.
  2. Not set for ANY specific haplogroup, since we are only dealing with 37 STR markers
  3. The next highest prediction was R1b L21>DF13>CTS1751>Z17966 at 5%, but a 16% chance of it falling into a "unsupported clade".

References & External Links

  • Cushman, Robert E. and Franklin P. Cole, (rev. 2005 by Judith H. Swann) Robert Cushman of Kent, History and Genealogy 2005, General Society of Mayflower Descendants, Plymouth MA
  • Wakefield, Robert S. and Margaret Harris Stover, Mayflower Families Through Five Generations vol. 17 Allerton 1998, reprinted 2015, General Society of Mayflower Descendants, Plymouth, MA
  • Roser, Susan E. and Judith A. Swan, Mayflower Families Through Five Generations vol. 12 Cooke 2017 addendum of 1999 2nd Edition, General Society of Mayflower Descendants, Plymouth, MA
  • wikipedia article on Thomas Cushman
  • Cushmansite.com Cushman English Ancestry
  • New England Historical and Genealogical Register, vol. 68 pp. 181-85 "Genealogical Research in England: Cushman" by Elizabeth French
  • Mayflower Quarterly, Sep 2013, pp. 226- "Robert Cushman, Mayflower Pilgrim in Canterbury 1596-1607" by Robert C. Cushman and Michael R. Paulick
  • Cushman, Joseph Augustine, The First Seven Generations of the Cushman Family in New England, 1964, (Bridgewater or Sharon), MA. Dorr's Print Shop