Howland (Y-DNA)

From Mayflower DNA
Jump to: navigation, search

Status summary

Completed as of May 18, 2019:

  • Big Y-500 (original Big Y) test completed for a descendant of "Pilgrim" John Howland
  • Y Elite test for Henry Howland Jr. descendant completed (kit E8PEF, tested previously at FTDNA as kit #37929).
  • Big Y-700 test completed for a male Howland who cannot trace his Y-DNA line (via the traditional "paper" trail) to one of the Howland brothers. This test confirms he descends from one of the brothers (and hints where he may descend from Arthur Howland, brother to "Pilgrim" John and Henry {II}).
  • Comparing the above tests, a SNP (A9705) has been found in a descendant of "Pilgrim" John Howland, which not found in the other Howland results. This SNP available for testing at YSEQ DNA Origins Project for $18.00 (plus an additional fee for the DNA swab) and may be available or for $15 (plus fee for the DNA swab) at Full Genomes Corp.
  • Recruiting additional Howlands for further SNP testing. Any male who believes they are a patrilineal (all male line) descendant of John Howland should Read me First

Still to do as of November 13, 2016

  • Identify where in the line of Pilgrim John Howland the A9705 SNP is found by testing select folks.
  • Next Generation Sequence (NGS) test other lines of Pilgrim John Howland to find other SNPs unique to descendants of Pilgrim John.

IMPORTANT Read me First


Names in bold font have Y-DNA descendants who have Y-DNA tested.

Speculative Origins[1]

The Pilgrim John Howland Society has hired a noted Mayflower passenger origins researcher (Caleb Johnson) to trace the origins of the Howland family. His first report was printed in The Howland Quarterly MAR 2016, pp. 10-20.

Johnson reported he found no evidence of the Howland family in Fen Stanton prior to the time of Henry Howland (father of Pilgrim John). We know Henry was living there as early as 1604, when his son, Simon, was baptized (from the Bishop's Transcript records). Unfortunately both the Parish records, and the Bishop's Transcripts are mostly missing from this time period, so we cannot state when Henry moved to Fen Stanton, nor know whether any of the other children were born there or elsewhere.

Johnson did find Howland families in nearby Cambridgeshire. He was able to conclusively prove the Henry Howland of Ely, Cambridgeshire (who had a son John bp in 1602/3) was not the Henry Howland of Fen Stanton, but instead, likely a cousin to some degree.

Johnson did note there was a Howland family at Horningsea, Cambridgeshire in the early part of the 16th Century to the early part of the 17th Century. This family had a history of naming sons Henry & John, so it is possible this is the area where Henry (father of John) originally was from.

An early version of the Pilgrim John Howland Society website had the following under "John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley Biographies"

"An original letter from a genealogist in England, in 1879, mentions "the extraordinary fact that I find the surname of Howland in no other county in England than Essex, and originally in no other locality in that county except at Newport and Wicken and their immediate vicinity. Wherever at later periods I have found Howlands in other counties, as Hertfordshire, Surrey , Berks, etc., I have invariably traced them back to Newport and Wicken. It is clear that several families of the name were living there contemporaneously and equally so that they were all in some way connected ..."

In addition, DNA testing has shown the Howland Y-DNA to be a subclade of the A96 clade. This clade has, to date, been found in the following families: Maybury, Baldwin, Rogers, Bishop, Foat, Wing & Howland. Of these families Some (Foat & Bishop) have a tradition of having an origin from what are now the Low Countries of Belgium, Luxemburg & The Netherlands. Essex, England (supposedly the ancestral origin of the Howland surname) was settled by the Saxons during the Germanic invasion of the 5th Century, and the Wing family is thought to arise from Wing, Buckinghamshire, located in part of Alfred the Great's Wessex Kingdom (which was also of Saxon origin). Recently a Rogers has tested positive for A9701 which was previously only found in the Howland Family. He tested negative for all of the other Howland SNPs (A9702-A9709). This individual was able to trace his paternal line to Cornwall, England, with a family tradition of them being of Norman origin.


John Howland[2] was the son of Henry Howland and his wife Margaret of Fen Stanton, Huntingdonshire (now part of Cambridgeshire), England. His death record[3] stated he died 23 Feb 1672[/3] in his "eightieth yeare". The Pilgrim John Howland Society as well as the General Society of Mayflower Descendants accepts an estimated birth date of 1592 for John based on this death record.

Per Caleb Johnson:

It has been traditionally reported that John Howland was born about 1592, based on his reported age at death in the Plymouth Church Records. However, ages at death were often overstated, and that is clearly the case here. John Howland came as a servant for John Carver, which means he was under 25 years old at the time (i.e. he was born after 1595). William Bradford, in the falling-overboard incident, refers to Howland as a "lusty young man," a term that would not likely have applied to a 28-year old given that Bradford himself was only 30. Bradford did call 21-year old John Alden a "young man" though. Howland's wife Elizabeth was born in 1607: a 32-year old marrying a 17-year old is a relatively unlikely circumstance. Howland's last child was born in 1649: a 57-year old Howland would be an unlikely father. All these taken together demonstrate that Howland's age was likely overstated by at least 5 years. Since he signed the "Mayflower Compact", we can assume he was probably at least 18 to 21 years old in 1620.

John came aboard the Mayflower as a servant to Gov. John Carver. Howland's incident during the voyage was duly cataloged by William Bradford:

In sundry of these storms the winds were so fierce and the seas so high, as they could not bear a know of sail, but were forced to hull for divers days together. And in one of them, as they thus lay at hull in a mighty storm, a lusty young man called John Howland, coming upon some occasion above the gratings was, with a seele of the ship, thrown into the sea; but it pleased God that he caught hold of the topsail halyards which hung overboard and ran out at length. Yet he held his hold (though he was sundry fathoms under water) till he was hauled up by the same rope to the brim of the water, and then with boat hook and other means got into the ship again and his life saved. And though he was something ill with it, yet he lived many years after and became a profitable member both in church and commonwealth.

Some speculate Howland came above board in order to get a breath of fresh air. However, others speculate he may have been used by Gov. Carver as an intermediary between the passengers and the crew. It is rumored their landing at Cape Cod (which clearly fell outside of the land the company was originally chartered) may have been a deliberate attempt to re-negotiate this charter for terms more favorable. If true, it is possible John Howland may have served a vital role in this decision.

John Howland survived the great sickness during the winter of 1620-21 and apparently took over as the head of Gov. Carver's household after the Governor's death in Apr 1621. At this time, "households" were not only family members, but was a means of housing the passengers in the new colony.

It is believed John married Elizabeth Tilley sometime after Aug 1623. This was presumably the fifth marriage in the colony (after Edward Winslow, Francis Eaton, John Alden & William Bradford [married 14 Aug 1623]). It is also believed they were married sometime prior to the 1623 division of land, which actually occurred during what we now consider the first three months of 1624 (Jan - Mar.) This date of marriage is also consistent with the births of their two oldest children (Desire ca 1625 & John who told Judge Sewell he was born 24 2[mo, Apr] 1627.) These two were also included in the 1627 division of cattle.

Nathaniel Morton's eulogy:
The 23th of February 1672 Mr. John Howland senir of the Town of Plymouth Deceased; hee was a Godly man and an ancient professor in the wayes of Christ; hee lived untill he attained above eighty yeares in the world, hee was one of the first Comers into this land and proved a usefull Instrument of Good in his place & was the last man that was left of those that Came over in the shipp Called the May Flower, that lived in Plymouth; hee was with honor Intered att the Towne of Plymouth on the 25 of February 1672.

It is said John was the first individual buried at Burial Hill[4], and likely in the area where a memorial stone for John was erected in 1897. This stone replaced a stone erected in either 1836 or 1844 (which incorrectly stated John's wife was a daughter of Gov. John Carver, so was replaced. This stone is said to have been buried under the new stone).[5]

  1. The parent clade of R-A9708 is R-A9703. A9703 is currently comprised of ten SNPs. One individual with a Baker surname has Big Y-700 tested A9703+ but A9708-. He lists his Most Distant Known Patrilineal Ancestor (MDKPA) as Frederick Baker, born 1850. Research has indicated where this Frederick Baker was baptized at Newnham, Kent, England on 10 Nov 1850. The record did not name a father, but gave his mother's name as Charlotte Baker. Census records indicate where she was unmarried when Frederick was born. Census records also indicate where a James Howland was living in Newnham, age 22 in the UK 1851 Census. He was listed as a servant and living in the household of Thomas Baker Elvy who was named after Thomas Baker, the latter was apparently was an uncle to Charlotte.
  2. Pilgrim Hall Museum John Howland biography.
  3. Plymouth Church records I:147(173)
  4. Handbook of Old Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts: Its History, Its Famous Dead, and Its Quaint Epitaphs by A.S. Burbank, 1896, p. 13
  5. John Howland bio

Y-DNA Descendants[1]

John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley had ten children: Desire (c1625) (Lieut.) John (II)(1627-1699), Hope (1629), Elizabeth (1631), Lydia (1633), Hannah (1637), (Capt.) Joseph (1640-1703), (Lieut.) Jabez (1644-1711), Ruth (1646) and (Ens.) Isaac (1649-1723). Several descendants of (Lieut.) John have done Y-DNA testing as well as one descendant of (Capt.) Joseph and one descendant of (Liet.) Jabez. The DNA test results (primarily STR testing) show all of these descendants are genetic/biological cousins and have identified the Y-DNA haplogroup for the Howland family.

For more information see: White, Elizabeth Pearson, John Howland of the Mayflower and Lainhart, Ann Smith & Robert S. Wakefield, Mayflower Families through Five Generations, Volume 23

Second Generation:

(Lieut.) John married Mary Lee and they had ten children: Mary (1652), Elizabeth (1655), Isaac (1659), Hannah (1661), Mercy (1663), Lydia (1665), Experience (1666), Anne (1670), Shubael (1672) and John (III) (1674). Descendants of Isaac & John (III) have Y-DNA tested.

(Capt.) Joseph married Elizabeth Southworth and they had nine children: James (1669), Nathaniel (1671), Lydia (1673), (Capt.) Thomas (1675), Elizabeth (1678), Sarah (1680), Joseph (1682-1689), Mercy (1682) and Benjamin (1685-1689). A descendant of Nathaniel has Y-DNA tested.

(Lieut.) Jabez married Bethia Thacher (sister of (Col.) John Thacher and they had eleven children: Jabez (II) (1669), John (1672-1672), Bethiah (1674-1677), Josiah (1676), John (1679-1689), Judah (1683-1689), Seth (1684-1685), Samuel (Esq.) (1686), Experience (1687-1689), Elizabeth (1690) and (Lieut.) Joseph (1692). A descendant of Joseph has Y-DNA tested.

(Ens.) Isaac married Elizabeth Vaugh(a)n and they had eight children: Seth (1677, m. Elizabeth Delano but no ch.), Isaac (II) (1678/9), Priscilla (1681), Elizabeth (1682-1685), Nathan (1686/7), Jael (1688), Susanna (1690) and Hannah (1694).

Third Generation

Isaac Howland was born Barnstable 25 Nov 1659 and died there 26 Dec 1724. He married Barnstable 27 Dec 1686 Anne Taylor and they had seven children (Barnstable): Ebenezer (1687 m Elizabeth Justice), Isaac (1689 m Mary Crocker), Mary (1691), Ann (1694), John (1696/7 Alice Hamlin), Noah (1699-d young) and Joseph (1702 m Rachel Crocker & Mariah Fuller, no sons by either)

Shobal (Shubael) Howland was born Barnstable 30 Sep 1672 and died there 17 Jun 1737. He married Barnstable 13 Dec 1700 Mercy Blossom and they had three children (Barnstable): Jabez (1701 m Elizabeth Percival), Mercy (1710) and Zaccheus (c1713 unm.)

John Howland (III) was born Barnstable 31 Dec 1674 and died (West) Barnstable 14 Feb 1737/8. He married twice, first abt 1706 Joanna Shove and second Barnstable 18 Jul 1719 Mary Crocker. By his first wife John had four children (Barnstable): George Gill (1705 m Abigail Crocker), Hannah (1708), Mary (1711) and Joanna (1715). By his second wife, John had two more children (Barnstable): (Rev.) John (1720/1 m Elizabeth Lewis) and Job (1726 m Hannah Jenkins).

James Howland was born Plymouth bef 29 Dec 1669 and died Kingston aft 26 Aug 1735. He married Barnstable 8 Sep 1697 Mary Lothrop and they had six children: Hannah (1699), Abigail (1702), Elizabeth (1704), Thankful (1709), (Capt.) John (1711 m Patience Spooner, only one surviving daughter) and James (1713, never married).

Nathaniel Howland was born Plymouth abt 1671 and died there 29 Dec 1746. He married twice, first Plymouth 3 Mar 1696/7 Martha Cole and second Plymouth 25 Jan 1725/6 Abigail CHURCHILL Billington[2] (no children). By his first wife, Nathaniel had five children (Plymouth): Joseph (1699 d. young), Mary (1701), Nathaniel (1705 m Yetmercy HOWLAND Palmer & Abigail BURT Lane), Martha (1707) and Joseph (1708 likely never married).

(Capt.) Thomas Howland was born Plymouth (now Kingston) abt 1675 and died Plymouth 2 Dec 1739. He married Plymouth abt 1699 Joanna Cole and they had eight children (Plymouth): Consider (son, 1700 m Ruth Bryant), Joanna (1702-1715), Experience (1705), Thomas (1707-1739/40 unm.), Elizabeth (1710), Hannah (1712), Joanna (1716) and Joseph (1718 unk. if marr.)

Jabez Howland (II) was born Plymouth 16 Nov 1669 and died Bristol, RI 17 Oct 1732. He married twice, first Bristol abt 1697 Patience Stafford and second, Bristol aft 11 Mar 1726/7 Mary Carder (no children). By his first wife, Jabez had nine children (Bristol [now in RI]): Patience (1700-1707), Bethiah (1702), Mercy (1704), Elizabeth (1707-1707), Elizabeth (1709), Sarah (1711), Jabez (1713 unm.), Patience (1716) and Thomas (1719 unm.). No Y-DNA lines from Jabez (II).

Josiah Howland was born Plymouth 6 Aug 1676 and died Bristol (now in RI) 8 Feb 1717/8. He married Barnstable 24 Nov 1709 Yetmercy "Mercy" Shove and they had at least two children: Yetmercy (1712) and Josiah (1717 unm.) No Y-DNA lines from Josiah.

Samuel Howland (Esq.) was born Bristol 16 May 1686 and died there 15 May 1748. He married three times (but only had children by his first wife)[3]. His first marriage Bristol 6 May 1708 Abigail Cary had eight children: Samuel (1709 m Lucie/Sarah Smith & Abigal Moon), Abigail (1710), (Dea.) John (1713 m Martha Wardwell), Tabitha (1715), Seth (1719-1719), Phebe (1720), Mary (1722) and Mehitable (1724)

(Lieut.) Joseph Howland was born Bristol 14 Oct 1692 and died there 16 Aug 1737. He married Swansea abt 1710 Bathsheba Cary and they had three children: Lydia (1715), Joseph (1717 m Sarah Barker) and Elizabeth (1719).

Isaac Howland (II) was born Middleborough 6 Mar 1678/9 and died there 26 Feb 1723/4. He married Middleborough abt 1713 Sarah Thomas and they had four children: Isaac (1714 unm.), Jeremiah (1715 m Betty Vaughn), Joseph (1717 m Elizabeth Mitchell) and Charles (1722-1723).

Nathan Howland was born Middleborough 17 Jan 1686/7 and died Middleborough bet.Mar 1733/4 - Jul 1759.[4] He married Middleborough bef 1712 Frances Coombs and they had six children: Desire (1712-1716/7), Seth (1714/5 m Lydia Cobb), Caleb (1717 no further record), Priscilla (1719/20), George (1723 no further record) and Ruth (1727).

  1. Two Y-DNA lines listed at wikitree profile for John Howland
  2. Abigail was the widow of Francis Billington
  3. Samuel married second, Barrington RI 16 Feb 1742 Rachel Norton and third Rehoboth 4 Jun 1747 Dorothy BALLARD Hunt.
  4. Nathan sold land (rec. 29 Mar 1734) - widow sued David Miller. 15 May 736 Seth Howland sold the homestead of his grandfather Isaac (called deceased) which was originally sold to Seth's father, Nathan (NOT called deceased).

Lineage of tested descendants

We currently have One Big Y-700 result of a patrilineal descendant of Pilgrim John Howland and a second Y-DNA descendant has taken the older Big Y-500 test. The lineages of these individuals are in bold font. Lineages not in bold font have taken some level of Y-STR testing, but have not done any Y-SNP testing. They are STR marker matches to the Big Y testers, so it is assumed the lineage is accurate:

 (Pilgrim) John Howland (1592-1672)
   (Lt) John Howland (II) (1627-1704)
     Isaac Howland (1659-1724)
       Isaac Howland (II)(1689-1751)
         Benjamin Howland (1729-p1765)
           Charles CROCKER Howland (c1765-1801)
             Benjamin C. Howland (1801-1871)
               James Lewis Howland (1832-1902)
                 Allen Baker Howland (1863-1937)
                     (tester) Howland 
     Shobal Howland (1672-1737)
       Jabez Howland (1701-1764)
         James Howland (1729-b1790)
           Joseph Howland (1762-1841)
             Joseph W. Howland (1793-1864)
               Asaph Dewey Howland (1826-1898)
                 William Bailey Howland (1873-1931)
                   Ralph William Howland (1899-1958)
                       (tester) Howland 
     John Howland (III) (1674-1737/8)
       (Rev) John Howland (IV) (1720-1804)
         James Howland (1760-1850)
           John Howland (1795-1870)
             John Howland (II) (1834-1908)
               John Anton Howland (1868-1959)
                 Arthur Eastman Howland (1893-1969)
                     (tester) Howland 
               James Arthur Howland (1874-1948)
                 (tester) Howland  
       Job Howland (1726-1794)
         (Capt.) John Howland (1757-1853)
           John Howland (II)(1789-1878)
             Clark Morton Howland (1824-1900)
               (Dr.) John Frank Howland (1868-1951)
                 John Clark Howland
                   (tester) Howland (deceased) 
           William Avery Howland (1794-1878)
             (Col.) Henry Howland (1827-1883)
               (Prof.) George Carter Howland (1885-1954)
                   (tester) Howland    
   (Capt.) Joseph Howland (c1640-1703/4)
     Nathaniel Howland (c1671-1746)
       Nathaniel Howland (II)(1705-1766)
         Joseph Howland (1749-1836)
           Gardiner Greene Howland (1787-1851)
             Gardiner Greene Howland (II)(1834-1903)
               Dulaney Howland (1859-1915)
                   (tester) Howland 
   Jabez Howland (1644-1711)
     Joseph Howland (1692-1737)
       Joseph Howland (II)(1717-1775)
         (Maj.) Benjamin Howland (1768-1818)
           Henry Augustus Howland (1806-1897)
             Henry Balcom Howland (1836-1872)
               Charles Henry Howland (1861-1928)
                 Hawthorne Howland (1889-1968)
                   (Capt.) John Brown Howland (1917-1962)
                       (tester) Howland  

DNA Results A9708

Previous Y-DNA testing

Several patrilineal descendants of Pilgrim John Howland have had their Y-DNA tested at Family Tree DNA. In addition, four patrilineal descendants of John's brother, Arthur, and several patrilineal descendants of his brother, Henry, have also been tested. See the Howland Surname Y-DNA Project

Utilizing STR results to determine whether a male Howland descends from Pilgrim John Howland, or one of his brothers is quite risky. STRs are prone to mutate much quicker than SNP results, and they are also prone to back mutations (which hides the mutation) and parallel mutations (where the same mutation happens in two separate lines). Given these risks, and predictions based on STR mutations really need to be confirmed with either traditional "paper-trail" research, or SNP testing to prove the relationship.

Within the 111 STR results, the four descendants of Arthur Howland all have DYS464a=16 (while the descendants of Pilgrim John and Henry have DYS464a=15). In addition, three of the four Arthur descendants have DYS576=18 (while the descendants of John & Henry as well as the fourth Arthur Howland descendant has DYS576=17). Both of these mutations show up within the first 37 STR markers (and everyone in the project has tested at least 37 STRs). Given the fact there are two separate STR mutations, it is likely that male Howland descendants who have both DYS464a=16 and DYS576=18 are descendants of Arthur while males who have only one of these mutations might be a descendant of Arthur.

Fewer individuals have extended their STR marker testing to 111 markers. We currently have three descendants of Arthur, four descendants of Pilgrim John and four descendants of Henry who have tested 111 STRs. The four descendants of Henry all have DYS485=14 (with all others being DYS485=15) All four also have DYS505=11 (with all others being DYS505=12). Once again, because we have two separate STR mutations, it is likely that male Howland descendants who have both mutations are descendants of Henry while males who only have one of these mutations might be a descendant of Henry.

There are no STR mutations (within the 111 STRs) found to be in common with Y-DNA descendants of Pilgrim John Howland, but in general, results which do not have any of the above STR mutations are likely to be descendants of Pilgrim John.

NGS/WGS DNA testing

Currently, there are eight Y-DNA Howland descendants who have taken the Big Y-700 test. Two are Y-DNA descendants of Pilgrim John Howland, three are descendants of Henry and three are descendants of Arthur. They all fall under Haplogroup R1b-U106 where they have been classified as: Z9>Z30>Z2>Z7>Z8>Z1>Z344>Z6>A96>S10415>A9703/A9708 This last clade is comprised of a single SNP (which is available for testing at

The three Henry Howland descendants (from two different sons, Zoeth and Samuel) have tested positive for FGC58211 and FGC58203 while the descendants of Pilgrim John and Arthur have tested negative for these SNPs. The three Arthur Howland descendants have all tested positive for FT62784 while the descendants of Pilgrim John and Henry have tested negative for this SNP.

The two descendants of Pilgrim John Howland do not share any SNPs in common with each other, but the do have a STR mutation (within the additional 600+ STRs tested by the Big Y-700) which is not shared by descendants of Arthur or Henry. FTY1094=17 is found in descendants of Pilgrim John while the descendants of Arthur and Henry both have FTY1094=16. Ideally, we would like to have more Pilgrim John Howland descendants take the Big Y-700 test to confirm whether or not this mutation is found in all Pilgrim John Howland descendants (or to pinpoint when this STR mutation occurred).

Usefulness of Big Y and Y-Elite tests

DNA mutations are random events, like the roll of a dice. As they are random, we can't say exactly how long it has been since a mutation occurred. However, just like rolling a seven on a pair of dice, we know how often a mutation should occur on average. For the part of the Y chromosome covered by a typical Big Y-700 test, this is about once per two to three generations, but it could vary from having more than one mutation in a generation to going several generations without a mutation.

Consequently, most of the time, we don't expect to separate a father and a son with a mutation we find. Indeed (while it isn't generally recommended), there have been a number of cases where both a father and his son have taken a Big Y test. In most cases, neither test shows a mutation the other doesn't. However, there are exceptions to this. These are caused not only by new mutations in the son's test, but also slight differences between the two Big Y tests.

Big Y, like all such tests, reads chunk-sized pieces of DNA. Depending on how these chunks are split up, slightly different parts of the Y chromosome will be tested. So two Big Y tests might only overlap on 98% of the mutations they test. The other 2% of mutations will only be called in one test or the other. Alternatively, they may be accurately read in one test, but read below the threshold for quality control in the other test. Consequently, there may be more "private" mutations that separate two people than we expect.

The real importance in doing the Big Y or Y-Elite test is the ability to compare your results with others. This works at all different levels.

We currently have a number of Big Y (and similar test) results across the Howland family. This has allowed us to determine where the A9703 clade belongs the Howland family, descendants of Henry Howland (c1565-1635) of Fen Stanton, England. As more Howlands take this type of test we will be able to determine subclades defining his descendants, eventually separating the families of his three sons (John, Henry & Arthur) and later defining more recent branches.

It also works in the opposite level, in discovering related surnames. Originally, the Wing family was the closest non-surname match to the Howlands. However, recently another Big Y tester came in and was found to be positive for a SNP not found in the Wing family but found within the Howland family (A9701). This other tester descends from a Rogers family (NOT related to Thomas and Joseph Rogers of the Mayflower). Going further back in time, Big Y results shows where the Howland/Rogers family shares a clade (S10415) with the following families: Wing, Maybury, Baldwin, Rogers, Bishop, and Foat. More families are found at each clade level above S10415 which shows the degree of relationship similar to first, second, third etc. cousins.

Another related item is the ability to estimate the age of each of these clades. We know the age of the Howland family in America starts with the birth of their father, Henry Howland ca 1565. The Howlands all share at least eleven SNPs not found in the next closest family (Rogers). While the mutations are random events, so we cannot state precisely how much time elapses between one mutation and another, we can say a mutation happens on average a little over every 80 years. Thus, the Rogers family is roughly 80*11=880 or so years before ca 1565 (or roughly 650 AD). The other surnames at the S10415 level are one SNP above the Howland/Rogers clade (A9701), so dates roughly to 575 AD or so.

The Howland teeth

The Pilgrim John Howland Society (PJHS) owns several acres of land at Rocky Nook, Kingston. This land included the home (in late life) of Pilgrim John Howland (which was inherited by his son Jabez) and across the Road (Howland Lane) the homestead of Joseph Howland (son of Pilgrim John) which was inherited by Joseph's eldest son, James. For many years, the PJHS has been exploring the sites with archaeological digs. During one such dig at the Joseph Howland site, two wisdom teeth (third molars) were discovered, which were apparently extracted from someone living at the house. This home site appears to have been abandoned sometime after the death of James Howland, so it is likely the teeth were either from one of Joseph Howland's children or one of James Howland's children. The PJHS is currently exploring the possibility of having DNA testing performed on the teeth.

Summary of findings

We currently have two patrilineal descendants of Pilgrim John Howland who have publicized their NGS/WGS test results. One descendant is from John (II) and the other descendant is from Jabez (both sons of Pilgrim John). These two descendants do not share any SNPs which are not shared by the patrilineal descendants of Pilgrim John's brothers, so there is currently no SNP which definitively documents all of Pilgrim John's line (as separate from his brothers lines). The John (II) descendant has documented two SNPs not found in the Jabez line (A9705 and Z18598) while the descendant of Jabez has documented two currently unnamed SNPs not found in the John line (13599901 and 12315744). Thus anyone who falls into the Howland A9703 clade who also tests positive for one of these four SNPs must descend from Pilgrim John. But not all Pilgrim John patrilineal descendants would test positive for any of these four SNPs. In addition, any A9703+ individual who also tests positive for A9705 or Z18598 must descend from John, son of Pilgrim John; while any A9703+ individual who also tests positive for 13599901 and/or 12315744 must descend from Jabez, son of Pilgrim John.

A9705 has been made available for individual SNP testing, but for technical reasons Z18598 is not able to be made available.

We now need to identify where along the line of descent the A9705 and the unnamed SNPs occurred.

Allied Families

The following families are connected to John Howland via marriage to descendants:

Gorham (Capt. John Gorham married Desire Howland). Y-DNA predicted to fall under I-M253 based on STR markers for two descendants

Chipman (Elder John Chipman married Hope Howland). Y-DNA predicted to fall under I-M223 based on 37 STR markers for a descendant

Dickinson (John Dickinson was the second husband to Elizabeth Howland).

Hawes (John Hawes married Desire Gorham). Y-DNA predicted to fall under I-M253 based on the 37 STR markers for two descendants

Baxter (Thomas Baxter married Temperance Gorham)

External links and references

  • White, Elizabeth Pearson, John Howland of the Mayflower, volume 1 (First four generations), Picton Press, Camden, ME. 1991
  • White, Elizabeth Pearson, John Howland of the Mayflower, volume 2 (son John Howland), Picton Press, Camden, ME. 1993
  • Lainhart, Ann Smith & Robert S. Wakefield, Mayflower Families through Five Generations, Volume 23 Part I (first 4 generations of John Howland) General Society of Mayflower Descendants, Plymouth, MA 2006
  • Lainhart, Ann Smith & Jane Fletcher Fisk, Mayflower Families through Five Generations, Volume 23 Part III (sons Joseph & Jabez) General Society of Mayflower Descendants, Plymouth, MA 2012
  • Anderson, Robert Charles, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633 vol. II (G-O), New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, MA. 1995
  • Roser, Susan E., Mayflower Increasings From the Files of George Ernest Bowman at the Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, Second edition 1995, 1996. pp. 68-81
  • Roser, Susan E., Mayflower Passenger References (from contemporary records & scholarly journals) [ Stewart Publishing & Printing], Canada. Second Edition, 2015

© 2015-2022 All Rights Reserved