Howland (Y-DNA)

From Mayflower DNA
Jump to: navigation, search

Status summary

Completed as of May 18, 2019:

  • Big Y-500 (original Big Y) test completed for a descendant of "Pilgrim" John Howland
  • Y Elite test for Henry Howland Jr. descendant completed (kit E8PEF, tested previously at FTDNA as kit #37929).
  • Big Y-700 test completed for a male Howland who cannot trace his Y-DNA line (via the traditional "paper" trail) to one of the Howland brothers. This test confirms he descends from one of the brothers (and hints where he may descend from Arthur Howland, brother to "Pilgrim" John and Henry {II}).
  • Comparing the above tests, a SNP (A9705) has been found in a descendant of "Pilgrim" John Howland, which not found in the other Howland results. This SNP available for testing at YSEQ DNA Origins Project for $18.00 (plus an additional fee for the DNA swab) and may be available or for $15 (plus fee for the DNA swab) at Full Genomes Corp.
  • Recruiting additional Howlands for further SNP testing - anyone interested in submitting their DNA for testing should contact MayflowerDNA1620@gmail.com

Still to do as of November 13, 2016

  • Identify where in the line of Pilgrim John Howland the A9705 SNP is found by testing select folks.
  • Next Generation Sequence (NGS) test other lines of Pilgrim John Howland to find other SNPs unique to descendants of Pilgrim John.

Background

Speculative Origins

The Pilgrim John Howland Society has hired a noted Mayflower passenger origins researcher (Caleb Johnson) to trace the origins of the Howland family. His first report was printed in The Howland Quarterly MAR 2016, pp. 10-20.

Johnson reported he found no evidence of the Howland family in Fen Stanton prior to the time of Henry Howland (father of Pilgrim John). We know Henry was living there as early as 1604, when his son, Simon, was baptized (from the Bishop's Transcript records). Unfortunately both the Parish records, and the Bishop's Transcripts are mostly missing from this time period, so we cannot state when Henry moved to Fen Stanton, nor know whether any of the other children were born there or elsewhere.

Johnson did find Howland families in nearby Cambridgeshire. He was able to conclusively prove the Henry Howland of Ely, Cambridgeshire (who had a son John bp in 1602/3) was not the Henry Howland of Fen Stanton, but instead, likely a cousin to some degree.

Johnson did note there was a Howland family at Horningsea, Cambridgeshire in the early part of the 16th Century to the early part of the 17th Century. This family had a history of naming sons Henry & John, so it is possible this is the area where Henry (father of John) originally was from.


An early version of the Pilgrim John Howland Society website had the following under "John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley Biographies"

"An original letter from a genealogist in England, in 1879, mentions "the extraordinary fact that I find the surname of Howland in no other county in England than Essex, and originally in no other locality in that county except at Newport and Wicken and their immediate vicinity. Wherever at later periods I have found Howlands in other counties, as Hertfordshire, Surrey , Berks, etc., I have invariably traced them back to Newport and Wicken. It is clear that several families of the name were living there contemporaneously and equally so that they were all in some way connected ..."


In addition, DNA testing has shown the Howland Y-DNA to be a subclade of the A96 clade. This clade has, to date, been found in the following families: Maybury, Baldwin, Rogers, Bishop, Foat, Wing & Howland. Of these families Some (Foat & Bishop) have a tradition of having an origin from what are now the Low Countries of Belgium, Luxemburg & The Netherlands. Essex, England (supposedly the ancestral origin of the Howland surname) was settled by the Saxons during the Germanic invasion of the 5th Century, and the Wing family is thought to arise from Wing, Buckinghamshire, located in part of Alfred the Great's Wessex Kingdom (which was also of Saxon origin). Recently a Rogers has tested positive for A9701 which was previously only found in the Howland Family. He tested negative for all of the other Howland SNPs (A9702-A9709). This individual was able to trace his paternal line to Cornwall, England, with a family tradition of them being of Norman origin.

Biography

John Howland[1] was the son of Henry Howland and his wife Margaret of Fen Stanton, Huntingdonshire (now part of Cambridgeshire), England. His death record[2] stated he died 23 Feb 1672[/3] in his "eightieth yeare". The Pilgrim John Howland Society as well as the General Society of Mayflower Descendants accepts an estimated birth date of 1592 for John based on this death record.

Per Caleb Johnson:

It has been traditionally reported that John Howland was born about 1592, based on his reported age at death in the Plymouth Church Records. However, ages at death were often overstated, and that is clearly the case here. John Howland came as a servant for John Carver, which means he was under 25 years old at the time (i.e. he was born after 1595). William Bradford, in the falling-overboard incident, refers to Howland as a "lusty young man," a term that would not likely have applied to a 28-year old given that Bradford himself was only 30. Bradford did call 21-year old John Alden a "young man" though. Howland's wife Elizabeth was born in 1607: a 32-year old marrying a 17-year old is a relatively unlikely circumstance. Howland's last child was born in 1649: a 57-year old Howland would be an unlikely father. All these taken together demonstrate that Howland's age was likely overstated by at least 5 years. Since he signed the "Mayflower Compact", we can assume he was probably at least 18 to 21 years old in 1620.

John came aboard the Mayflower as a servant to Gov. John Carver. Howland's incident during the voyage was duly cataloged by William Bradford:

In sundry of these storms the winds were so fierce and the seas so high, as they could not bear a know of sail, but were forced to hull for divers days together. And in one of them, as they thus lay at hull in a mighty storm, a lusty young man called John Howland, coming upon some occasion above the gratings was, with a seele of the ship, thrown into the sea; but it pleased God that he caught hold of the topsail halyards which hung overboard and ran out at length. Yet he held his hold (though he was sundry fathoms under water) till he was hauled up by the same rope to the brim of the water, and then with boat hook and other means got into the ship again and his life saved. And though he was something ill with it, yet he lived many years after and became a profitable member both in church and commonwealth.

Some speculate Howland came above board in order to get a breath of fresh air. However, others speculate he may have been used by Gov. Carver as an intermediary between the passengers and the crew. It is rumored their landing at Cape Cod (which clearly fell outside of the land the company was originally chartered) may have been a deliberate attempt to re-negotiate this charter for terms more favorable. If true, it is possible John Howland may have served a vital role in this decision.

John Howland survived the great sickness during the winter of 1620-21 and apparently took over as the head of Gov. Carver's household after the Governor's death in Apr 1621. At this time, "households" were not only family members, but was a means of housing the passengers in the new colony.

It is believed John married Elizabeth Tilley sometime after Aug 1623. This was presumably the fifth marriage in the colony (after Edward Winslow, Francis Eaton, John Alden & William Bradford [married 14 Aug 1623]). It is also believed they were married sometime prior to the 1623 division of land, which actually occurred during what we now consider the first three months of 1624 (Jan - Mar.) This date of marriage is also consistent with the births of their two oldest children (Desire ca 1625 & John who told Judge Sewell he was born 24 2[mo, Apr] 1627.) These two were also included in the 1627 division of cattle.

Nathaniel Morton's eulogy:
The 23th of February 1672 Mr. John Howland senir of the Town of Plymouth Deceased; hee was a Godly man and an ancient professor in the wayes of Christ; hee lived untill he attained above eighty yeares in the world, hee was one of the first Comers into this land and proved a usefull Instrument of Good in his place & was the last man that was left of those that Came over in the shipp Called the May Flower, that lived in Plymouth; hee was with honor Intered att the Towne of Plymouth on the 25 of February 1672.

It is said John was the first individual buried at Burial Hill[3], and likely in the area where a memorial stone for John was erected in 1897. This stone replaced a stone erected in either 1836 or 1844 (which incorrectly stated John's wife was a daughter of Gov. John Carver, so was replaced. This stone is said to have been buried under the new stone).[4]

  1. Pilgrim Hall Museum John Howland biography.
  2. Plymouth Church records I:147(173)
  3. Handbook of Old Burial Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts: Its History, Its Famous Dead, and Its Quaint Epitaphs by A.S. Burbank, 1896, p. 13
  4. John Howland bio

Y-DNA Descendants[1]

John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley had ten children: Desire (c1625) (Lieut.) John (II)(1627-1699), Hope (1629), Elizabeth (1631), Lydia (1633), Hannah (1637), (Capt.) Joseph (1640-1703), (Lieut.) Jabez (1644-1711), Ruth (1646) and (Ens.) Isaac (1649-1723). Several descendants of (Lieut.) John have done Y-DNA testing as well as one descendant of (Capt.) Joseph and one descendant of (Liet.) Jabez. The DNA test results (primarily STR testing) show all of these descendants are genetic/biological cousins and have identified the Y-DNA haplogroup for the Howland family.

Second Generation:

(Lieut.) John had ten children: Mary, Elizabeth, Isaac, Hannah, Mercy, Lydia, Experience, Anne, Shubael & John (III). Descendants of Isaac & John (III) have tested.

(Capt.) Joseph had nine children: James, Nathaniel, Lydia, (Capt.) Thomas, Elizabeth, Sarah, Joseph (d.y.), Mercy and Benjamin (d.y.). However, both James & Thomas' lines eventually daughtered out and a descendant of Nathaniel has tested.

(Lieut.) Jabez had eleven children: Jabez (II), John (d.y.), Bethiah (d.y.), Josiah, John (d.y.), Judah (d.y.), Seth (d.y.), Samuel (Esq.), Experience (d.y.), Elizabeth and (Lieut.) Joseph. However, Jabez (II) & Josiah's lines eventually daughtered out. A descendant of Joseph has DNA tested.

(Ens.) Isaac had eight children: Seth (no children), Isaac (II), Priscilla, Elizabeth (d.y.), Nathan, Jael, Susanna and Hannah.

  1. Two Y-DNA lines listed at wikitree profile for John Howland

Lineage of tested descendants

We currently have One Big Y-700 result of a patrilineal descendant of Pilgrim John Howland and a second Y-DNA descendant has taken the older Big Y-500 test. The lineages of these individuals are as follows:

 (Pilgrim) John Howland (1592-1672)
   (Lt) John Howland (II) (1627-1704)
     John Howland (III) (1674-1737/8)
       (Rev) John Howland (IV) (1720-1804)
         James Howland (1760-1850)
           John Howland (1795-1870)
             John Howland (II) (1834-1908)
               John Anton Howland (1868-1959)
                 Arthur Eastman Howland (1893-1969)
                   father
                     (tester) Howland
   Jabez Howland(1644-1711)
     Joseph Howland (1692-1737)
       Joseph Howland (II)(1717-1775)
         (Maj.) Benjamin Howland (1768-1818)
           Henry Augustus Howland (1806-1897)
             Henry Balcom Howland (1836-1872)
               Charles Henry Howland (1861-1928)
                 Hawthorne Howland (1889-1968)
                   (Capt.) John Brown Howland (1917-1962)
                     father
                       (tester) Howland

DNA Results A9703

Previous Y-DNA testing

Several patrilineal descendants of Pilgrim John Howland have had their Y-DNA tested at Family Tree DNA. In addition, four patrilineal descendants of John's brother, Arthur, and several patrilineal descendants of his brother, Henry, have also been tested. See the Howland Surname Y-DNA Project

Utilizing STR results to determine whether a male Howland descends from Pilgrim John Howland, or one of his brothers is quite risky. STRs are prone to mutate much quicker than SNP results, and they are also prone to back mutations (which hides the mutation) and parallel mutations (where the same mutation happens in two separate lines). Given these risks, and predictions based on STR mutations really need to be confirmed with either traditional "paper-trail" research, or SNP testing to prove the relationship.

Within the 111 STR results, the four descendants of Arthur Howland all have DYS464a=16 (while the descendants of Pilgrim John and Henry have DYS464a=15). In addition, three of the four Arthur descendants have DYS576=18 (while the descendants of John & Henry as well as the fourth Arthur Howland descendant has DYS576=17). Both of these mutations show up within the first 37 STR markers (and everyone in the project has tested at least 37 STRs). Given the fact there are two separate STR mutations, it is likely that male Howland descendants who have both DYS464a=16 and DYS576=18 are descendants of Arthur while males who have only one of these mutations might be a descendant of Arthur.

Fewer individuals have extended their STR marker testing to 111 markers. We currently have three descendants of Arthur, four descendants of Pilgrim John and four descendants of Henry who have tested 111 STRs. The four descendants of Henry all have DYS485=14 (with all others being DYS485=15) All four also have DYS505=11 (with all others being DYS505=12). Once again, because we have two separate STR mutations, it is likely that male Howland descendants who have both mutations are descendants of Henry while males who only have one of these mutations might be a descendant of Henry.

There are no STR mutations (within the 111 STRs) found to be in common with Y-DNA descendants of Pilgrim John Howland, but in general, results which do not have any of the above STR mutations are likely to be descendants of Pilgrim John.

NGS/WGS DNA testing

Currently, there are seven Y-DNA Howland descendants who have taken the Big Y-700 test. Two are Y-DNA descendants of Pilgrim John Howland, two are descendants of Henry and three are descendants of Arthur. They all fall under Haplogroup R1b-U106 where they have been classified as: Z9>Z30>Z2>Z7>Z8>Z1>Z344>Z6>A96>S10415>A9703 This last SNP is one of eleven SNPs (of which five are currently available for testing at YSEQ.org).

The two Henry Howland descendants have tested positive for FGC58211 while the descendants of Pilgrim John and Arthur have tested negative for this SNP. However, both of the Henry Howland descendants are from the same son (Zoeth), so at least one descendant of Samuel (son of Henry) should undertake NGS/WGS testing to determine whether this SNP falls under all Henry Howland descendants, or only descendants of his son Zoeth.

The three Arthur Howland descendants have all tested positive for FT62784 while the descendants of Pilgrim John and Henry have tested negative for this SNP.

The two descendants of Pilgrim John Howland do not share any SNPs in common with each other, but the do have a STR mutation (within the additional 600+ STRs tested by the Big Y-700) which is not shared by descendants of Arthur or Henry. FTY1094=17 is found in descendants of Pilgrim John while the descendants of Arthur and Henry both have FTY1094=16. Ideally, we would like to have more Pilgrim John Howland descendants take the Big Y-700 test to confirm whether or not this mutation is likely found in all Pilgrim John Howland descendants.

Usefulness of Big Y and Y-Elite tests

DNA mutations are random events, like the roll of a dice. As they are random, we can't say exactly how long it has been since a mutation occurred. However, just like rolling a seven on a pair of dice, we know how often a mutation should occur on average. For the part of the Y chromosome covered by a typical Big Y-700 test, this is about once per two to three generations, but it could vary from having more than one mutation in a generation to going several generations without a mutation.

Consequently, most of the time, we don't expect to separate a father and a son with a mutation we find. Indeed (while it isn't generally recommended), there have been a number of cases where both a father and his son have taken a Big Y test. In most cases, neither test shows a mutation the other doesn't. However, there are exceptions to this. These are caused not only by new mutations in the son's test, but also slight differences between the two Big Y tests.

Big Y, like all such tests, reads chunk-sized pieces of DNA. Depending on how these chunks are split up, slightly different parts of the Y chromosome will be tested. So two Big Y tests might only overlap on 98% of the mutations they test. The other 2% of mutations will only be called in one test or the other. Alternatively, they may be accurately read in one test, but read below the threshold for quality control in the other test. Consequently, there may be more "private" mutations that separate two people than we expect.

The real importance in doing the Big Y or Y-Elite test is the ability to compare your results with others. This works at all different levels.

We currently have a number of Big Y (and similar test) results across the Howland family. This has allowed us to determine where the A9703 clade belongs the Howland family, descendants of Henry Howland (c1565-1635) of Fen Stanton, England. As more Howlands take this type of test we will be able to determine subclades defining his descendants, eventually separating the families of his three sons (John, Henry & Arthur) and later defining more recent branches.

It also works in the opposite level, in discovering related surnames. Originally, the Wing family was the closest non-surname match to the Howlands. However, recently another Big Y tester came in and was found to be positive for a SNP not found in the Wing family, but found within the Howland family (A9701). This other tester descends from a Rogers family (NOT related to Thomas and Joseph Rogers of the Mayflower). Going further back in time, Big Y results shows where the Howland/Rogers, Wing & other surnames Maybury, Baldwin, Rogers, Bishop, Foat are all related via the A96 clade (which is immediately above A9703). More families are found at each clade level above A96 which shows the degree of relationship similar to first, second, third etc. cousins.

Another related item is the ability to estimate the age of each of these clades. We know the age of the Howland family in America starts with the birth of their father, Henry Howland ca 1565. The Howlands all share at least eleven SNPs not found in the next closest family (Rogers). While the mutations are random events, so we cannot state precisely how much time elapses between one mutation and another, on average, we can say one mutation happens roughly every 80 years. Thus the Rogers family is roughly 80*11=880 or so years before ca 1565 (or roughly 685 AD).The other surnames at the A96 level is one SNP above, so dates roughly to 605 AD or so.

Summary of findings

We currently have two patrilineal descendants of Pilgrim John Howland who have publicized their NGS/WGS test results. One descendant is from John (II) and the other descendant is from Jabez (both sons of Pilgrim John). These two descendants do not share any SNPs which are not shared by the patrilineal descendants of Pilgrim John's brothers, so there is currently no SNP which definitively documents all of Pilgrim John's line (as separate from his brothers lines). The John (II) descendant has documented two SNPs not found in the Jabez line (A9705 and Z18598) while the descendant of Jabez has documented two currently unnamed SNPs not found in the John line (13599901 and 12315744). Thus anyone who falls into the Howland A9703 clade who also tests positive for one of these four SNPs must descend from Pilgrim John. But not all Pilgrim John patrilineal descendants would test positive for any of these four SNPs. In addition, any A9703+ individual who also tests positive for A9705 or Z18598 must descend from John, son of Pilgrim John; while any A9703+ individual who also tests positive for 13599901 and/or 12315744 must descend from Jabez, son of Pilgrim John.

A9705 has been made available for individual SNP testing, but for technical reasons Z18598 is not able to be made available.

We now need to identify where along the line of descent the A9705 and the unnamed SNPs occurred.

Allied Families

The following families are connected to John Howland via marriage to descendants:

Gorham (Capt. John Gorham married Desire Howland). Y-DNA predicted to fall under I-M253 based on STR markers for two descendants

Chipman (Elder John Chipman married Hope Howland). Y-DNA predicted to fall under I-M223 based on 37 STR markers for a descendant

Dickinson (John Dickinson was the second husband to Elizabeth Howland).

Hawes (John Hawes married Desire Gorham). Y-DNA predicted to fall under I-M253 based on the 37 STR markers for two descendants

Baxter (Thomas Baxter married Temperance Gorham)

External links and references

  • White, Elizabeth Pearson, John Howland of the Mayflower, volume 1 (First four generations), Picton Press, Camden, ME. 1991
  • White, Elizabeth Pearson, John Howland of the Mayflower, volume 2 (son John Howland), Picton Press, Camden, ME. 1993
  • Lainhart, Ann Smith & Robert S. Wakefield, Mayflower Families through Five Generations, Volume 23 Part I (first 4 generations of John Howland) General Society of Mayflower Descendants, Plymouth, MA 2006
  • Lainhart, Ann Smith & Jane Fletcher Fisk, Mayflower Families through Five Generations, Volume 23 Part III (sons Joseph & Jabez) General Society of Mayflower Descendants, Plymouth, MA 2012
  • Anderson, Robert Charles, The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633 vol. II (G-O), New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, MA. 1995
  • Roser, Susan E., Mayflower Increasings From the Files of George Ernest Bowman at the Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, Second edition 1995, 1996. pp. 68-81
  • Roser, Susan E., Mayflower Passenger References (from contemporary records & scholarly journals) [www.stewartbooks.com Stewart Publishing & Printing], Canada. Second Edition, 2015


© 2015-2021 mayflowerdna.org All Rights Reserved